Tattoos that make Humans as Cyborg
Tattoos are 12000 years older, which originated from ancient mummies, found in China’s Taklamakan Desert. Japanese men began to tattoo their bodies with elaborate tattoos in the late A.D 3rd century. So-called technology have given rise to the new side, it is known as tattoo electrodes.
Inkjet printers are added up with conductive polymers and printed on standard tattoo paper and then it is stuck with the surface of the skin. This is used to measure the heart or muscle activity in an individual. The thickness ranges from 700-800 nanometres, that is, it is about 100 times smaller than a human hair. When stuck with skin surface it is hardly notable in the body. The tattoos are dry electrodes, in contrast to gel electrodes; they work without a liquid interface and cannot let to dry out. Hair growth on the spot will not disturb the signal recording.
Inkjet printing of conductive polymer on tattoo paper, that is, the composition and thickness of the transfer paper and conductive polymer have been optimized for a better connection between the skins and tattoo electrodes to record the EEG signals with a maximum of quality. Commonly brain waves are in the range of low frequency and EEG signals have very low amplitude. Tests of EEG measurement with optimized tattoos are successful as compared with conventional EEG electrodes. Inkjet printing and the commercially available substrates made our tattoos significantly less expensive. As the current EEG electrodes are included with disadvantages like wearing comfort and long-term measurements.
Tattoo electrodes that are developed meant to be the first dry electrode type that is found to be suitable for long-term EEG measurements. It is also found to be compatible with magneto-encephalography (MEG). MEG is known for measuring the brain activity so for meant as wet electrodes. These electrodes work on the basis of electrolytes, gel or an electrode paste, thus they would dry out quickly. This makes it unsuitable for long-term measurements.
The new generation of tattoo electrodes consists of conductive polymers. This doesn’t contain any metals which can be a disadvantage for MEG examinations. Perfect pictured kind of MEG compatible electrode was produced. This technology was used in clinics and in neuroengineering and also in the field of brain-computer interfaces.