Advancements in Prosthetic - A Human Controlled Sci-fi Robotic vision
The cases of amputations are seen growing day by day due to continuous growth in industrialization and also safety parameters should be effectively done in all sectors. Awareness is also an important factor that should be followed strictly. Some causes of incidents resulted in loss of human arms in different accidents that take place either industrially or in other daily accidental issues. Thus the requirement for prosthetic arms increases on with advantages like being safer, simple and also automatic. In the case of cost constraints, the well-equipped form of prosthetic arm could not reach the needy people.
Amputation means “to cut out” the limb that has faced many situations like trauma, medical illness, or surgery. As the medical team suggests this to do so the pain caused or a disease in the affected limb can be controlled. Limb amputation will put an individual in their hard times where they lose their work and have to stay back home. They will depend on others for their basic needs. Thus these kinds of prosthetic arms will be the remedy to overcome these issues and allow that community of people to work along with others. The designers should concentrate on different factors like gears, levers, and points of mechanical advantages and electromechanical designs should also be taken care such as switches, dc motors, and electronics. The prosthetics designer should also gain knowledge of fields like musculoskeletal anatomy and muscular and also in neurophysiology.
Designing of prosthetics is not that easy as the designer must design the arm that meets all the needs of the patient. It includes kind of work, sex of the individual etc., the type of prosthetic arms differ based on the type of disarticulation undergone.
Transhumeral Prosthesis or (AE) Amputation above Elbow
Artificial limb of this type replaces an arm missing above the elbow. This is related to the complexities of regions like fingers, wrist and elbow.
Trans radial Prosthesis or Amputation below Elbow (BR)
Missing arm below the elbow is replaced by this process.
Missing body parts function is limitedly restored by this kind. An object can be passively taken through holding or gripping. This is used in replacement of either the missing fingers ort the entire part of the arm from the shoulder.
Body Powered Prosthesis
In this prosthesis is actuated using cables attached to a harness which secures prosthesis on the amputated limb of the patient.
Myo Electric Prosthesis
· During the contraction of the muscles, electrical action potential of the residual limbs is used.
· Skin surface measures the emissions at a microvolt level.
· Myoelectric signals are also known as motor action potential.
· This produces contraction of muscle fibres in the body.
· It has frequencies of few Hertz to about 300 Hertz
· Voltages ranging from 10 microvolt to 1 millivolts are measured.
· Myoelectric signals are detected by three electrodes on the skin.
· Two electrodes used to develop voltage difference during the contraction muscles.
· The third one is used in the neutral area, its output is used in the reduction or cancelling the noise produced by the other two electrodes.
Spring hands works on the principle of under actuation, that is, the concept of under actuation. In palm one DC actuator is integrated that actuates the hand. Slider moments results wires in tension causing the flexion of all fingers. This SPRING hand weighed nearly 400 grams.
HANDIII, FROM exiii Inc. Japan
Genta Kondo established smartphone to process muscle signals from the Japanese Company. Signals from the skin surface are collected through wireless techniques. Intended hand motion is detected by the user. Use of motors is reduced. One motor per 3DOF finger is used. Mechanism adaptive to numerous sizes and shapes are used. 3D printer production for reduced production cost & Easy to repair and customized design.